Inside knowledge: What separates fact from belief

 作者:贾年夭     |      日期:2019-03-01 09:04:02
Jamie Mills By Richard Webb I’VE won the lottery. I haven’t checked my numbers yet, but I just know. You know what it’s like, when you just know you know. Knowledge is a slippery concept: what we know, how we know we know it, what we know others know, what others know of what we know, how what we or they know differs from what we just believe. You would probably argue that, until I see the winning numbers, I can’t know I have won the lottery – I can only believe it. Yet how do you know that? Most of us make our way through life without peering too closely under the bonnet of epistemology – the theory of knowledge. “We manage it intuitively, we don’t have to reflect and calculate,” says Jennifer Nagel, a philosopher at the University of Toronto, Canada, and author of Knowledge: A very short introduction. But it rewards closer inspection. For a start, the degree to which we know stuff and know what others know is quite possibly what separates humans from everything else on the planet, from rocks to chimpanzees (see “Knowledge: Of chimps, curiosity and quantum mechanics“). It is certainly the lubricant of all human interactions. “We can cooperate, communicate and compete better if we know what others know and don’t know,